Lantern slides showing movie theater etiquette and announcements, circa 1912.
John and William Guthrie were two Scottish brothers working at what had been their father’s painting and decorating firm. By the mid-1880s, the firm of J & W Guthrie had moved into significant stained glass design and installation across Scotland and the greater UK, providing work for numerous other Scottish glass-makers [x]. The company joined with Andrew Wells to become Guthrie & Wells, after which it continued to produce stained glass and other architecture designs into the 20th century. [x]
Scottish Art of the 19th-Century: Sir William Quiller Orchardson, Master Baby (1886) [National Galleries Scotland]
This famous image of a mother and baby casually playing stood out against the allegorized figures of Madonna-and-child and other historical figures of the 19th century. Orchardson (1832-1910), who used his wife and son for the models, worked closely with other Scottish painters and succeeded in the late-1880s and 1890s as a portraitist and narrative painter. As the National Galleries of Scotland trace,
he impression of spontaneity was, in fact, the result of detailed planning through preparatory drawings, and Orchardson’s balanced composition reflected the influence of the work of the Japanese printmaker Utamaro. Degas and Sickert were among the painting’s enthusiastic admirers when it was exhibited at the Grosvenor Gallery, London, in 1886. [x]
A group of Scottish painters in the late-19th century — who became known as ‘The Glasgow boys' — took from contemporary artists both within and outside Britain in order to shift the focus of their works to rural, familiar subjects. Looking especially to French Impressionism and, through them, to Eastern (especially Japanese) ink prints, the Boys wanted to ‘challenge the formulaic landscapes and narrative subjects of late Victorian Scottish painting, and to develop a distinctive style of naturalist painting' [University of Glasgow].
Of these, Sir James Guthrie (1859-1930) was a major player. Guthrie’s ‘early works of rural subjects painted with broad square brush strokes show the strong influence of French painters such as Bastien-Lepage. Guthrie was born in Greenock and trained as a lawyer before turning to art. After brief but stimulating periods in London and Paris, he committed himself to painting directly from nature in Scotland. Guthrie also experimented with pastel drawings and established a reputation as a successful portrait painter. He became president of the Royal Scottish Academy in 1902 and was knighted the following year’ [x].
As the Edinburgh Museums explain:
Inspired by the Dutch and French schools and artists like James A. McNeil Whistler, the Glasgow boys produced their most notable works between the 1890’s and 1910. Showing an interest in realism, impressionism and inspired by compositional techniques, the Glasgow Boys tried to challenge the Edinburgh dominated art scene.
In the years prior to the outbreak of war in 1914, Glasgow was part of a great artistic evolution. The Glasgow School or Glasgow Boys as they are known paved the way for a new ‘modern’ style of painting that swept Europe and America. From the 1880’s the Glasgow Boys were exhibiting their works in the Salon in Paris. The Glasgow Boys consisted of an informal association of some twenty artists; its main figures were William York Macgregor, Joseph Crawhall, George Henry, Edward Atkinson Hornel, Sir John Lavery and Arthur Melville. Many members of this Glasgow collective went to France to study in Paris or in the rural artists’ colonies in France. The paintings done by many of the group during the 1880s was among their most radical. Their compositions showed a particular interest in rural realism, in working out-of-doors, and in French-inspired tonal and compositional techniques. [x]
Scotland was the home of numerous major inventions in the 18th and 19th centuries, including — as depicted here — James Watt a separate condenser for the steam engine which allowed problems in cooling to be solved and enhanced steam engine performance, as well as several other improvements to the steam engine process. After his death, Watt entered the common vernacular as the unit of measurement of power (joules/second): the watt.
Painter James Eckford Lauder (1811-1869), on the other hand, captured numerous scenes of history and literature, many of which focused on Scottish figures. According to the National Galleries of Scotland:
Lauder was inspired to become an artist by the example of his elder brother Robert Scott Lauder, from whom he received early artistic training. From 1830-3 he studied under William Allan and Thomas Duncan at the Trustees’ Academy in Edinburgh. Following this, he spent four years in Italy with his brother, where he studied and made copies after the old masters. The subjects of his early work were largely drawn from Scott, Shakespeare or his Italian surroundings. On his return, he exhibited annually at the Royal Scottish Academy, where he was elected as an associate in 1839, and a full academician in 1846. He continued to produce historical and literary subjects until the late 1850s, when he turned to landscape. This move was unsuccessful and he struggled to find a market for his work. [x]
Eadweard Muybridge, Woman Jumping / Running Straight High Jump, 1887, plate 156
Possibly the best part is her small smile in the last few frames.